The curriculum supported by TTSH Pathology department is designed to provide complete training in all major areas of anatomic pathology while remaining flexible enough to accommodate diverse career goals in clinical practice and academia.
Anatomic Pathology rotations are integrated throughout the 3-year basic curriculum
leading to the intermediate examination with the United Kingdom College. This is followed by 2 additional years of advanced training, and an exit examination (United Kingdom or Australasian) leading to certification by the Singapore Accreditation Board as a specialist.
Program Mission and Aims
The mission of NHG
Pathology Residency Program is to produce knowledgeable and competent
pathologists who are able to deliver quality patient care that is
comprehensive, appropriate and cost-effective, and be able to function
effectively as leaders and members of laboratory, multidisciplinary and
The Anatomic Pathology Residency Program aims to produce clinicians who are:
- Competent and safe to practise at consultant level as an Anatomic Pathologist i.e. being able to independently report routine Surgical Pathology and Cytopathology cases, as well as realise their own limitations and when to refer for further opinion
- Familiar with accessioning, processing, sectioning and staining of histology and cytology material, including special techniques such as histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy and molecular tests, so as to be able to interact appropriately with medical technologists over those aspects of the technical work for which they are responsible. This includes possessing sufficient knowledge of laboratory procedures to be able to troubleshoot problems including issues with fixation, artefacts, staining problems, etc., so as to ensure accurate and high quality material is available for the formulation of diagnostic opinions
- Skilled in management and communication in order to interact appropriately with medical, scientific, technical and clerical colleagues in the workplace, and eventually to function as a team leader, if assigned by Head of Department
- Able to work well as part of a team in the delivery of appropriate aspects of healthcare services, including adaptability with administrative and management procedures needed to ensure prompt and clinically useful reporting of assigned cases as well as participation in multidisciplinary meetings
- Familiar with and are able to properly manage a laboratory in terms of laboratory safety, audit and overseeing accreditation with various professional bodies. This includes being adept with health and safety regulations governing the practice of Anatomic Pathology and its subspecialties, to ensure that the working environment is safe for both themselves and their colleagues
- Capable of understanding information technology sufficiently to use computers for producing pathology reports and laboratory statistics, to search databases, and to access e-mail and internet services
- Able to share their knowledge to help build a living, learning and teaching organization
- Experienced in performing research on surgical pathology and cytopathology material, as well as having participated in scholarly activity and able to critically appraise the medical literature
- Able to take personal responsibility for their own educational and professional activities
- Able to motivate themselves in acquiring new knowledge pertaining to the field of Anatomic Pathology.
The Anatomical Pathology (AP) Program includes
60 months of structured training in General Surgical and Subspecialty
Pathology, Cytopathology, Autopsy / Forensic Pathology, and aspects of
Training in the first 2 years (R1 and R2) will consist of:
- General Surgical Pathology, for at least 12 months
- Cytopathology, which is integrated with the General Surgical Pathology rotations, for at least an equivalent of 3 months of training
- Molecular pathology, which is currently undergoing integration with the General Surgical Pathology rotations, for at least an equivalent of 1 month of training
- Digital pathology, which is planned to be integrated with the General Surgical Pathology rotations, for at least an equivalent of 1 month of training
- Autopsy / Forensic pathology for 4 months
- Gynecology pathology for 3 months and Pediatric pathology for 1 month
- Dermatopathology for 1 month
the third year (R3) will be geared towards consolidation of knowledge and
experience acquired during the first 2 years. Apart from accruing additional
experience in General Surgical Pathology which is available throughout the
year, concentrated subspecialty exposure for a short duration may be made
available. Those interested in research may opt to participate in the NHG Clinician-Scientist Preparatory Program (CSPP). Training may be individualised at the discretion of the Program
Director depending on the timings of the previous rotations and learning needs
of the resident.
Training in the
fourth (R4) and fifth (R5) years will be predominantly clinical and service
work based, as the resident is expected to function independently as an
Anatomic Pathology Consultant upon passing of the exit examination. There will
be additional external rotations for General Surgical
Pathology, Gynecology Pathology and Pediatric Pathology, and another optional
rotation for Dermatopathology.
Advanced Elective Rotations and Research
Apart from accruing additional experience in General Surgical Pathology which is available throughout the year, concentrated subspecialty exposure for 1-3 months may be made available. Those interested in research may opt to participate in the NHG Clinician-Scientist Preparatory Program (CSPP).
Residents are given 12 days of training leave per year by the Ministry
of Health Holdings. This time may be used for activities such as attending conferences,
research activities and portfolio preparation. Residents should notify the
leave dates in advance to the Programme Director so as to facilitate
departmental roster planning.
Our teaching programme includes introductory lectures as well as
systemic tutorials by faculty with subspecialty interests in various organ
systems. This allows the resident to appreciate the breadth of diseases seen in
Anatomic Pathology. However, following teaching sessions, the resident should
continue reading on his/her own to gain additional knowledge. Other educational
activities include participation in journal clubs, case-based discussions and
multidisciplinary meetings. As some of our faculty have experience as national
and overseas examiners, examination-based slide sets can be conducted in-house for
additional learning. Residents are highly encouraged to attend local and
overseas workshops and conferences to further their medical knowledge.
The Program requirement is at least a poster presentation, publication or oral presentation at a conference, annually.
Residents are to
participate in compulsory audit activities as part of the Laboratory Management
aspect of the curriculum. They are also encouraged to identify areas of
improvement in their daily work and may choose to participate in a clinical
practice improvement project.
Senior residents are encouraged to participate in the teaching of junior residents and medical officers, with seeking of active feedback to improve teaching performance. Residents who demonstrate aptitude and a keen interest in education are also encouraged to attend Faculty Development courses.